This section is a compilation of commonly used hygiene promotion (HP) tools and methods, arranged in alphabetic order. Many tools and methods – especially those that are interactive and stimulate discussion - can be used throughout the programme cycle and for all components of HP. Several tools – even those that are not always interactive - can be adapted and made more so. A key aim of an HP intervention is to influence WASH practices. Most tools support Social and Behaviour Change (chapter B ). Some have been developed from specific behavioural change models B.2 and approaches (chapter F ). Not all existing tools are included; the selection is of the current most commonly used tools for a variety of situations. As tools are adapted or developed, they will be added to the online version of the Compendium.
Some tools are suited to specific situations. Others can be used for different phases of the emergency and at various stages in the project cycle (e.g. for assessment, implementation and monitoring). With minimal adaptation, the tools can be used in a variety of settings and with different groups of people. Most of the tools provide a method for investigating and learning about the WASH (or health/hygiene) situation. Many describe ways of engaging the affected population, promoting discussion about the situation and motivating people to address the issues.
The use of the tools and methods must respect the autonomy and dignity of participants. Consent must always be obtained and people given information about the process and how their data will be used and stored. Knowledge and information should be gathered to address the community’s needs, not for its own sake. The tools must be used to build people’s confidence and self-esteem rather than to make them feel small or inadequate. Participatory tools and methods are underpinned by a particular philosophy and set of values. They aim to provide a voice to people from diverse backgrounds and identities and involve the affected community in identifying collective solutions to the specific problems faced. People are not passive information providers; they are active investigators of solutions to improve their situation.
Many of the tools facilitate participation and accountability in a WASH programme because they emphasise the importance of listening to affected communities and of using dialogue and discussion to understand the particular issues faced by that community. All the tools should be implemented using the essential considerations and practices that underpin accountability, safeguarding and working with children, as outlined below.
Accountability and Safeguarding Good Practice
Working with Children
To support the context-specific selection of appropriate tools and methods this section provides an overview of all tools and methods covered classified in relation to some key selection criteria. Using the corresponding filters provides an initial indication of which tools and methods may be suitable for a particular context. The filters are divided into four categories: HP Component, Response Phase, Target Group and Application Level.
The HP Component category refers to the six key HP components described in the first section of this Compendium. This category indicates whether the tools and methods are commonly used in relation to the components in the six chapters of Preconditions and Enabling Factors P , Community Engagement and Participation E , Assessment, Analysis and Planning A , Communication C , Social and Behaviour Change B and Monitoring, Evaluation, Accountability and Learning M . An indication of whether a tool or method is linked to any of the HP components is given using asterisks (two asterisks: suitable, one asterisk: less suitable, no asterisk: rarely suitable or unsuitable).
The Emergency Phase category indicates which specific tool or method is appropriate and suitable in which phase of the response. It is subdivided into the phases of acute response, stabilisation, recovery, protracted crisis and development. An indication of a tool or method’s suitability for each phase is provided using asterisks (two asterisks: suitable, one asterisk: less suitable, no asterisk: rarely suitable or unsuitable). The level of appropriateness is selected through a comparison between the different tools and methods, mainly based on the criteria of applicability and speed of implementation.
The Target Group refers to different population groups whose participation could be enhanced through using a specific tool or method. It is subdivided into children, adults, older people, people with disabilities, local leaders and/or the society as a whole. An indication of whether a tool or method is suitable at targeting a specific segment of the population is given using asterisks (two asterisks: suitable, one asterisk: less suitable, no asterisk: rarely suitable or unsuitable).
The Application Level refers to the different environments and scale for which the tools and methods are most appropriate. It is subdivided into individual/household, community/municipality, institution, camp, rural and urban contexts. An indication of whether a tool or method is suitable at a specific spatial level is given using asterisks (two asterisks: suitable, one asterisk: less suitable, no asterisk: rarely suitable or unsuitable).