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T.25 Logical Framework Analysis and Problem Tree

A Logical Framework Analysis (LFA or ‘logframe’) is a planning process that uses a Problem Tree and Stakeholder Analysis [T.49] and provides an overview of project objectives and indicators and how they will be measured. It illustrates the hierarchy of objectives and how they contribute to programme impact and provides a basis for Monitoring [M.2] and Evaluation [M.3] of activities, outputs and outcomes.

The LFA comprises a set of tools that support planning, monitoring and evaluation. Assessment data A.4 is analysed with the help of a ‘Problem Tree’ to identify interventions and actions to address the problems. An overall project goal and the steps necessary to achieve that goal are identified. This hierarchy of objectives (goal, outcomes, outputs, activities) is compiled into a matrix. For each level of the hierarchy, SMART (specific, measurable, achievable, realistic and timebound) indicators are inserted into the matrix, with methods for measuring the indicators called the ‘means of verification’. An outline of the risks inherent to the project (i.e. the likelihood of not meeting the objectives) and important assumptions (things that need to be in place to meet the objectives) are also included. The logframe should present a clear and accessible summary of the main objectives, outcomes, indicators and activities. Ideally, the logframe is developed as a team activity and shared with all project stakeholders. The logframe is often a requirement from donors but should be used as a living document to guide the project; it will need adapting as the situation evolves. WASH-related objectives should include indicators of participation and engagement (chapter  E ), Accountability to Affected Populations (M.4 and F.23), behaviour change and hygiene action (chapter  B ).


The LFA process can be used in all contexts and all projects. It is a requirement for all hygiene promotion and WASH interventions. It takes time, especially in a group, as there will often be debate about each objective and where it sits in the matrix. Training and practice are required and an experienced facilitator is usually needed.


  • Use a simple guide to LFA to support the process (see resources)

  • Involve key stakeholders in the process wherever possible

  • Continue to adjust and update the logframe and use it for monitoring progress


  • Do not compile a logframe and then forget to use and update it

  • Do not get bogged down by imperfections in the model but use it as a practical planning framework

  • Do not over-complicate the logframe - it should provide a clear overview of the project

Practical Example

A team in Sierra Leone brainstormed the area’s WASH problems and underlying factors to develop a logframe; it took two meetings of over three hours each. Some participants were frustrated by the process, feeling that the logframe was too inflexible for a rapidly changing context. Most found it helpful to discuss the issues, agree on the programme objectives and how they would be measured. They also considered what could go wrong and what could be done to mitigate the risks. The affected community was not involved in the development of the logframe, nor was it shared with them.

Key Decision Critria

Response Phase
Acute Response
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Protracted Crisis
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HP Component
Preconditions and Enabling Environment
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Community Engagement and Participation
Assessment, Analysis and Planning
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Social and Behaviour Change
Monitoring, Evaluation, Accountability and Learning (MEAL)
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Target Group
Older People
Persons with Disabilities
Local Leaders
Society as a whole
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Application Level
Individual / Household
Community / Municipality
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General description of the Problem Tree method

IFRC (undated): Problem Tree. EVCA Toolbox

Short film on humanitarian logframes

Save the Children (2018): Humanitarian Logframes

Simple guides and tools

Garbutt, A., Simister, N. (2017): The Logical Framework, Intrac

Tools4dev (undated): Logical Framework (Logframe) Template

DFID (2011): Guidance on Using the Revised Logical Framework

Example plan of action

IFRC (undated): Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Promotion (WASH) Logframe/Plan of Action (POA) Template