The Hygiene Promotion in Emergencies online platform is divided into three major sections (see also menu at the top of the page):
Hygiene Promotion Components
This section is considered the core of the platform and provides a detailed description of the six key hygiene promotion components. These include: Preconditions and Enabling Factors [P], Community Engagement and Participation [E], Assessment, Analysis and Planning [A], Communication [C], Social and Behaviour Change [B] and Monitoring, Evaluation, Accountability and Learning [M]. By clicking on a specific component section users can access more in-depth information compiled in a series of short sub-chapters. The sub-chapters describe the component’s main purpose, an overview and a practical process and good practice section. Each sub-chapter also provides links to key resources and publications.
Hygiene Promotion Tools and Methods
This section is a compilation of all the relevant hygiene promotion tools and methods that are commonly used in emergencies. Each is summarised in a concise one-page information sheet outlining its main features and basic working principles. The information sheets identify when, where and with whom the tools and methods can be used including do’s and don’ts and a practical example. The purpose of these sheets is to enable users to compare tools and approaches and select those most suitable for their circumstances. Each tool or method provides links to key resources and publications with practical and in-depth information.
Hygiene Promotion Frameworks and Approaches
This section is a compilation of existing hygiene promotion frameworks and approaches. They may use several of the tools and methods described under tools [T]. Each of the frameworks and approaches is described in a short information sheet outlining its main features and working principles and where and when they are applicable. The sheets include a list of all the tools and methods used as part of the approach (linked to the respective tools and methods), the main requirements and investments needed and any existing evidence of effectiveness. They also include practical advice on do’s and don’ts, a representative case study and links to key resources and publications for each framework and approach.
The platform can be used in very different ways depending on who is using it and for what purpose.
Reference Tool: At its core the Online Platform is a user-friendly compilation of the most relevant and sector-reviewed components, tools, methods and approaches available to design and implement successful Hygiene Promotion interventions. It draws on latest initiatives, materials and evidence, disaggregating Hygiene Promotion into its functional components, clarifying terminology adn providing guidance on the most appropriate solutions ina given context. Hence it can be used as a structured reference tool for WASH practitioners and capacity development institutions. Basically, a more interactive version of the hard/softcopy publication.
Filtering of Tools and Approaches: Using the filter bar at the top of the ‘tools and methods’ and the 'frameworks and approaches" section can be another potential entry point that allows reducing complexity and pre-selecting only those tools and frameworks that are suitable for a specific scenario or context. Based on concrete site settings (like e.g. the phase of emergency for which a technology solution is needed, the target group or the application level) the number of potentially suitable tools and frameworks can be reduced to a more digestible size and makes the selection easier. The categorisation used for each of the filters should not be seen as fixed and incontrovertible and may vary under certain local conditions. The categorisation is rather meant to support rapid informed decision making and is a complement to, not a substitute for, sound professional judgement.
Watchlist: Specific components, tools and framworks of interest can be put on a separate watchlist (by clicking on the asterisk next to each technology) either to safe it for later, for print out or to share and discuss it further with colleagues. The watchlist can be accessed by clicking on the ‘watchlist’ tab on the upper left corner. For each component, tool and framework a 2-page summary pdf-document is available for download or print out.
The filter bar at the top of the ‘Tools and Methods’ and ‘Frameworks and Approaches’ section allows reducing complexity and pre-selecting only those tools and frameworks that are suitable for a specific scenario or context. Based on concrete site settings the number of potentially suitable tools and frameworks can be considerably reduced to a more digestible size and makes selection easier. By clicking on the respective boxes under each of the filters only those tools and frameworks will be shown that correspond to the respective boxes. The currently active filters are always shown directly under the filter bar. The active filters can be cleared/deactivated by clicking on the ‘clear filter’ button or by deactivating individual boxes of currently active filters. The selected tools and frameworks that will appear when filters are active can give a first indication of which tools and frameworks may be suitable in a particular context, but should not be seen as fixed and incontrovertible and may vary under certain local site conditions. The categorisation is rather meant to support rapid informed decision making and is a complement to, not a substitute for, sound professional judgement. The available filter options include the following:
Hygiene Promotion Component
Indication of whether a tool or framework is commonly used in relation to the key hygiene promotion components outlined in the Components section. The corresponding filter options include: Preconditions and Enabling Factors [P], Community Engagement and Participation [E], Assessment, Analysis and Planning [A], Communication [C], Social and Behaviour Change [B] and Monitoring, Evaluation, Accountability and Learning [M]. The suitability of a tool or framework in relation to any of the hygiene promotion components is indicated by asterisks (two asterisks: suitable, one asterisk: less suitable, no asterisk: rarely suitable or unsuitable). All of the tools and frameworks incorporate some form of community engagement and communication and aim to influence and change behaviour. The asterisks have been assigned according to their relative appropriateness.
Indication of appropriateness of the tools and frameworks according to the four main response phases:
An indication of whether a tool or framework is suitable for a specific response phase is given using asterisks (two asterisks: suitable, one asterisk: less suitable, no asterisk: rarely suitable or unsuitable). The level of appropriateness is decided through a comparison between the different tools and frameworks, mainly based on applicability and the speed of implementation.
Refers to segments of a population who could better participate when using a specific tool or framework. It is subdivided into children, adults, elders, people with disabilities, local leaders and/or the society as a whole. An indication of whether a tool or framework is suitable for targeting a specific population segment is given using asterisks (two asterisks: suitable, one asterisk: less suitable, no asterisk: rarely suitable or unsuitable).
Refers to the spatial context and scale for which the frameworks or approaches are most appropriate. It is subdivided into the following levels: individual/household, community/municipality, institution, camp, rural and/or urban contexts. An indication of whether a tool or framework is suitable at a specific spatial level is given using asterisks (two asterisks: suitable, one asterisk: less suitable, no asterisk: rarely suitable or unsuitable).
Refers to the most important hygiene behaviours typically addressed as part of hygiene promotion interventions. An indication of whether a tool or framework is suitable at targeting a specific hygiene behaviour is given using asterisks (two asterisks: suitable, one asterisk: less suitable, no asterisk: rarely suitable or unsuitable).
Each of the hygiene promotion component sub-chapters follow a similar structure, describing the main purpose, most important take-aways, an overview description and practical information on process and good practice. It also includes a references section with links to further reading materials.
Each tool or method is summarised with a short general description, in-depth information regarding its applicability, some practical ‘do and don’t’ priority actions and an example case study. Some filterable key decision criteria are summarised in a separate column and provide easy-to-grasp general guidance about the hygiene promotion components it is related to, the response phase, application level, target group and its main purpose. It also includes a references section with links to further reading materials.
Each framework or approach is summarised with a short general description, a collection of tools and methods used as part of the approach, additional in-depth information regarding its applicability, the main requirements and investments needed, evidence of effectiveness, some practical ‘do and don’t’ priority actions and an example case study. Some filterable key decision criteria are summarised in a separate column and provide easy-to-grasp general guidance about the hygiene promotion components it is related to, the response phase, application level, target group, target behaviour and its main purpose. It also includes a references section with links to further reading materials.
This platform mainly targets humanitarian staff, local first responders, engineers, planners, hygiene promoters, communications and community engagement professionals, government representatives, academic institutions, capacity strengthening agencies and other WASH professionals involved in humanitarian response, preparedness, stabilisation and recovery activities.
The implementation of an hygiene promotion programme must be guided by the Humanitarian Programme Cycle (HPC), as used by the Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC). It provides a framework for preparedness (which encompasses the whole programme cycle) and for the implementation of an intervention through five sequential steps.
Hygiene promotion interventions however are not linear or one-off: they span the entire programme cycle (see figure below). The information provided on this platform inform the full programme cycle, providing a comprehensive collection of guidance, information, components, tools and methods, and frameworks and approaches with which programmes can be assessed, designed, implemented and adapted. Some chapters correspond directly to the HPC ([A] and [M]); others can be selected, as required, at any stage of the programme cycle (e.g. [E]). Additional resources are provided in the reference section.
Some approaches will only be appropriate in particular contexts and programmes. There are however four key elements of hygiene promotion implementation that should be applied in every programme:
The choice of a tool or approach will depend on the context, funding, resources, access and the time available. It also depends on the specific population group the responders are working with and where. For example, the Integrated Behavioural Model [T.21] or the RANAS [F.20] approach could be used to assess and design the programme. The Community Perception Tracker [F.24], ‘Mum’s Magic Hands’ [F.5] and a variety of tools could be used to understand and respond to community feedback (accountability) and increase handwashing rates.
The use of the filters in the Tools [T] and Framework [F] section (such as target group, application level or response phase) can aid with decision making.
Preparedness: emergency response preparedness activities begin with communities recognising that they are at risk and hence developing potential response strategies. Responders (including governments) need to prepare by understanding local strengths, weaknesses and vulnerabilities. Responders can help communities with assessments [A] to identify risky hygiene practices and ways to address them, and to identify their communication preferences [C]. Preparedness assessment should also consider access to adequate stocks of hygiene items or markets ([P.6] and [P.8]), access to minimum WASH infrastructure and services (chapter P) and the scope for Market-Based Programming [P.8].
Needs Assessment and Analysis: in the early stage of an emergency it is essential to understand the context and existing local capacity [A.6]. Assessments aim to find out who is affected, their needs and vulnerabilities, the affected communities‘ perceptions, existing norms, leadership structures and priorities. The coping strategies of the communities and their capacities can be mapped out so that interventions address gaps in hygiene facilities, services and corresponding behaviours. It is also essential to understand the various motivators and barriers ([B.3] [B.4] [B.5] [B.6] [B.7]) that influence change and to understand the difference between knowledge, skills, ability and self-efficacy and how they can be used beneficially in hygiene promotion ([B.3] and [B.4]). Attitudes and beliefs also motivate behaviour change [B.5] and are linked to social norms as an important influence on individual behavioural change [B.6]. It is also important to use an understanding of cues and habit formation to encourage successful and sustainable behaviour change [B.7]. A community profile [A.7] should be developed to determine which individuals and groups are vulnerable to which WASH-related risks and why. This profile can guide interventions throughout all phases: acute response, stabilisation and recovery.
Many factors affect people’s health and wellbeing, not only access to WASH [A.2]. It is vital to design and plan the assessment with others [A.3] and to select appropriate data collection methods [A.4] in order to carry out an effective assessment [A.5] and an appropriate plan [A.9] that responds to the needs of the affected population. A combination of quantitative and qualitative methodologies is ideal, though care should be taken when carrying out quantitative surveys [A.8]. It is also essential to engage, enable and listen to different groups during the assessment ([E.1] and [E.2]). The WASH needs in different settings and institutions such as schools [E.6]should also be considered.
Strategic Planning: the planning phase [A.9] of an intervention involves analysing and prioritising the information gathered during the assessment and using it to design and resource the programme. It is a vital step in any hygiene promotion intervention. For WASH-related interventions, incorporating gender [E.3] and diversity is particularly important. The needs of babies, children and young people [E.4], older people and those with disabilities [E.5] must be considered. Menstrual Hygiene Management [P.7] must be incorporated early in the programme. Involving a diverse group of affected people in discussions about the assessment findings and understanding their concerns early on is important to review the plans and decide together on realistic and context-specific options. Planning also includes the process of procurement or development of the necessary materials and resources for the programme’s activities as well as identifying human resource needs, including staff training (see Implementation and Monitoring below).
Resource Mobilisation: refers to ensuring sufficient financial resources (funding is not covered in the Compendium). In the initial stage of an emergency, a large share of the resources may be dedicated to water supply [P.3] and sanitation facilities and services [P.4] and enabling access to hygiene products and materials ([P.5] and [P.7]). There will often be recurring costs for such items. Handwashing with soap and access to handwashing facilities [P.2] should be a priority, even if funding is constrained, as it is a highly effective intervention to prevent the spread of disease.
Implementation and Monitoring: hygiene behaviour change [B.1] is fundamental to emergency hygiene promotion implementation. It can be defined as the adoption or increase in key hygiene behaviours (such as the safe handling of water) and a decrease in risky behaviours (such as open defecation). Various behaviour change models and theories are outlined [B.2]. An overview matrix is provided of existing frameworks and approaches appropriate for different target groups, humanitarian contexts and settings [F]. Hygiene Promotion Tools and Methods [T] also support the implementation of behaviour change strategies.
Successful implementation requires promoters with appropriate communication [C.2] and hygiene promotion skills and expertise. In an acute emergency there must be dedicated hygiene promotion personnel (whether volunteers or paid staff). Hygiene Promotion in Schools [E.6] requires its own set of considerations and approaches to be effective. For all WASH facilities, at community or institutional level, a feeling of Ownership and Management [E.7] responsibility are critical for the continued functionality of the services. Community Capacity Strengthening [E.9] should be included in the programme to enable sufficient levels of participation, engagement and skills.
Monitoring [M.2] is the systematic and continuous checking of the hygiene promotion programme’s progress to ensure that it is doing what is intended, using allocated funds appropriately and to good effect, seeking and hearing feedback and acting upon it and identifying strengths, weaknesses and gaps so that any required changes can be made.
Operational Peer Review and Evaluation: Accountability [M.4] aims to ensure that resources are used appropriately and transparently, that WASH responders take responsibility for their work and that communities benefit from efficient and effective programming. Standards such as Sphere and the CHS provide a framework for accountability, enabling the programme to respond to the needs of the affected community and facilitating peer review, on-going learning and improvement. Evaluation [M.3] examines whether the project has achieved its stated goal and what changes have occurred as a result. The main evaluation criteria are relevance, coherence, effectiveness, efficiency, impact and sustainability. Sharing and using evaluation findings encourages transparency and learning in the sector. Research is also important to test innovations, guide and strengthen evidence-based decision-making [M.7] in the design, implementation and evaluation of humanitarian WASH programmes.