This section is a comprehensive compilation of the most commonly used hygiene promotion (HP) frameworks and approaches. It includes widely used participatory approaches focused on improving sanitation and hygiene conditions such as Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS, F.2), Participatory Hygiene and Sanitation Transformation (PHAST, F.6) or Community Health Clubs (F.1 and F.3), a variety of approaches targeting children or the immediate school environment such as CHAST [F.]), Fit for School F.10, Three Star Approach F.11 or Toilets Making the F.12 and approaches targeting women and girls such as WASH Social Architecture [F.15]. The section also includes approaches based on behavioural science such as Wash’Em F.22, RANAS F.20 or FOAM and SaniFOAM F.19 and more specific approaches targeting accountability such as Accountability to the Affected Population (AAP, F.23) and participation such as Community Perception Tracking F.24. There is often a degree of overlap between the categories.
Each framework or approach is summarised in two pages and includes a short description, tools and methods used as part of the approach, additional in-depth information regarding its applicability, the main requirements and investments needed, evidence of effectiveness, some practical ‘Do and Don’t’ priority actions and an example case study. Some key decision criteria are summarised in the right column of each framework or approach and provide easy-to-grasp general guidance about the response phase, application level, target group, the HP components it is related to and its main purpose.
Filters can be used to support the context-specific selection of appropriate frameworks and approaches; it can give a first indication of which framework and approach may be suitable in a particular context. The filters are subdivided into five categories: Hygiene Promotion Component, Response Phase, Target Group, Application Level and Target Behaviour.
The Hygiene Promotion Component category of the matrix refers to the six key HP components described in the first section of this Compendium. The category indicates whether each framework and approach is commonly used in relation to the components in the six chapters of Preconditions and Enabling Factors (chapter P ), Community Engagement and Participation (chapter E ), Assessment, Analysis and Planning (chapter A ), Communication (chapter C ), Social and Behaviour Change (chapter B ) and Monitoring, Evaluation, Accountability and Learning (MEAL, chapter M ). The suitability of a framework or approach in relation to any of the HP components is indicated by asterisks (two asterisks: suitable, one asterisk: less suitable, no asterisk: rarely suitable or unsuitable). All the frameworks incorporate some form of community engagement and communication and aim to influence and change behaviour. The asterisks have been assigned according to their relative appropriateness.
The Response Phase indicates for which phase of the response a specific framework or approach is appropriate and suitable. It is subdivided into the phases of acute response, stabilisation, recovery, protracted crisis scenarios and development. An indication of whether a framework or approach is suitable for a specific response phase is given using asterisks (two asterisks: suitable, one asterisk: less suitable, no asterisk: rarely suitable or unsuitable). The level of appropriateness is decided through a comparison between the different frameworks and approaches, mainly based on applicability and the speed of implementation.
The Target Group refers to segments of a population who could better participate when using a specific framework or approach. It is subdivided into children, adults, elders, people with disabilities, local leaders and society as a whole. An indication of whether a framework or approach is suitable for targeting a specific population segment is given using asterisks (two asterisks: suitable, one asterisk: less suitable, no asterisk: rarely suitable or unsuitable).
The Application Level refers to the spatial context and scale for which the frameworks or approaches are most appropriate. It is subdivided into the following levels: individual/household, community/municipality, institution, camp, rural and urban contexts. An indication of whether a framework or approach is suitable at a specific spatial level is given using asterisks (two asterisks: suitable, one asterisk: less suitable, no asterisk: rarely suitable or unsuitable).
The Target Behaviour refers to the most important hygiene behaviours typically addressed as part of HP interventions. An indication of whether a framework or approach is suitable at targeting a specific hygiene behaviour is given using asterisks (two asterisks: suitable, one asterisk: less suitable, no asterisk: rarely suitable or unsuitable).