Gender Analysis looks at the impact of a humanitarian crisis on women, girls, men and boys and enables the WASH response to meet their distinct needs and priorities. It is an integral part of the assessment phase and must be considered throughout the WASH programme cycle.
Gender Analysis looks at the relationships between women, girls, men and boys. It considers their respective roles, access to and control of resources as well as the level of vulnerability and constraints faced by each group E.3. It analyses who in the population is affected by the crisis, what they need and what they can do for themselves. Sex (and age) disaggregated data are a core component of any Gender Analysis. Data about population demographics is also essential, such as the total number of households affected (disaggregated by sex and age), the number of single female and male-headed families and the number of families headed by children (girls and boys). WASH-related Gender Analysis questions include: what is the extent of WASH knowledge and skills and its relationship to health (women, girls, boys and men). How has the crisis affected them? What are the water uses and responsibilities in different groups e.g. for cooking, sanitation, gardens, livestock? What are the family members’ patterns of water allocation (sharing, quantity, quality) and who decides on the allocation? Who is responsible for the maintenance and management of WASH facilities? Are water points, toilets and bathing facilities located and designed to ensure privacy and security, and can different user groups access them safely during the day and night? What are the different needs and preferences for hygiene items? Gender Analysis is conducted through desk reviews, Key Informant Interviews T.23 and/or Focus Group Discussions T.14 and supported by gender specialists.
Gender Analysis is relevant to all response phases, taking place during the assessment (chapter A ), Monitoring M.2 and Evaluation M.3 phases and using information collected throughout the hygiene promotion (HP) programme.
Consider initial Key Informant Interviews [T.23] with some men, women, community leaders, teachers and health workers to understand sensitive gender issues better
Use Gender Analysis to mainstream gender into HP interventions throughout the response
Select team members based on their ability to work with girls, women, boys and men and train them to be gender-sensitive
Consider how individuals experience life differently at different ages and life stages
Do not rely solely on secondary data
Do not only examine women’s needs, capacities and coping mechanisms but consider all genders and how they interact
A Gender Analysis done by Oxfam in Nepal aimed to identify the impact of the earthquake on the affected people and understand their needs and coping strategies. Key issues identified included: social taboos and discrimination, power relations, women’s participation in planning and decision making, control and access to resources and social subordination and exclusion. Based on the recommendations from the analysis, Oxfam’s WASH department explicitly and systematically integrated gender equality considerations into all stages of the project, including in budgetary provision where possible.
IASC (2018): The Gender Handbook for Humanitarian Action. IASC Reference Group on Gender and Humanitarian Action, IASC Reference Group on Gender and Humanitarian Action
CARE (undated): Rapid Gender Analysis
IFRC (2021): Protection, Gender and Inclusion in Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Promotion - Leaving No-One Behind in WASH (Available in different languages)