Stakeholder Mapping is a collaborative process undertaken to determine, analyse and categorise relevant stakeholders according to their level of influence and interest in a particular intervention or project.
Stakeholders are individuals, groups, institutions or organisations that are internal or external to the intervention, have a vested interest in its success and can positively or negatively impact it. Stakeholders should influence the planning, selection of priorities and objectives of interventions to ensure programme relevance and appropriateness. Stakeholder Mapping aims to identify all the potential stakeholders who are affected by the intervention. Actors can be categorised as primary stakeholders (those directly impacted) and secondary stakeholders (those indirectly impacted). It is important to analyse their perspectives and interests, positions for or against an intervention, alliances or conflicts with other stakeholders, their power to affect the intervention or their degree of involvement in the process. Once stakeholders have been identified and analysed, they can be categorised, mapped and prioritised using a matrix to record and compare their level of interest or attitude (opponent, neutral, allies) and level of influence (e.g. what is important to them? What could they contribute to the process? To what degree can they make or break a project? How powerful or influential are they?). It is crucial to actively communicate and engage with different groups throughout the process through formal or informal networking, Key Informant Interviews T.23 and, later in the process, joint stakeholder meetings. Stakeholder Mapping is often used for Planning A.9 and as part of the Logical Framework Analysis T.25 process. It should be a collaborative exercise involving some, or if possible, all relevant stakeholders to increase transparency and foster a mutual understanding and ownership.
Stakeholder Mapping can be applied in all response phases and contexts. It provides an essential foundation for the successful planning and implementation of a WASH response. It is a dynamic process and remains important throughout the entire project cycle.
Engage staff and local actors - local staff are a major source of learning
Diversify sources of information for identifying and analysing stakeholders
Revisit the matrix regularly when monitoring the project implementation.
Do not rush the activity; get as much information from as many sources as possible
Do not view the mapping as a one-off exercise and forget to use it or update it during implementation
As part of the Global Disaster Risk Management initiative, Malteser International supported the Government of Myanmar to develop Stakeholder Mapping. The main objective of the study was to analyse the early warning systems of national and international stakeholders in order to identify and address priority gaps. The mapping exercise identified 160 national and international stakeholder organisations and numerous weaknesses in the area of communication. Actions were taken by a variety of stakeholders to strengthen the weaknesses including improving public media messages on forecasts of extreme weather, addressing the digital divide caused by poor internet and telephone connectivity and conducting campaigns among at-risk communities to raise awareness about the types of warning that could be received and the corresponding actions to take.
Miro (undated): Complete Stakeholder Mapping Guide
SSWM (undated): Stakeholder Importance and Influence
Grassroots Collective (undated): Tools for Project Planning in Community Development. Using a Stakeholder Analysis to Identify Key Local Actors
Communications with Communities Working Group (2020): Stakeholder Mapping 2020. Ukhiya and Teknaf Upazila, Cox’s Bazar Bangladesh
Malteser International (undated): Mapping of Stakeholders and Initiatives on Early Warning Systems in Myanmar